we have 2 solution of harnesses:

The PSF system

the ABM sistem


The PSF system designed by PER  IL VOLO in 1996 is now known like classic standard and used by the most important paramotor manufacturers in all the wolrd.

It is made of many parts

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On the left side drawing :

The green parts hold  the engine on  the shoulders while standing up.

The red parts hold the pilot while in flight by the  carabiner

The black parts belong to the rigid frame, in trimming the flight they cancel the torque effect of the prop. 

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Thank to this kind of balance the wings is stable and the pilot at ease.

The smooth hooking of the wing allows an active piloting to the expert pilot


It is better to do the very first setting by hanging the harness with the help of ropes  (to a tree or a balcony etc.) so to simulate the action of the wing braces (bear in mind that braces are never exactly perpendicular, instead, they tend to pull outside). This setting is for a 140/210 lb. or 63/78 in. pilot. A variation of few inches is enough in case of heavy pilots.   

Do start by lengthening the belt (C) by the buckle (5), in order to avoid to interfere with other settings.

Shoulder-paddings -  The pilot standing up, the weight of the engine must be on the Green  paddings (A);   If they are to short they lean on the seat hampering the movements.

 It must be possible to shift the seat towards the back, without any effort

The adjustments must be done by the buckles(1) e (2).

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The cross belt is to avoid the slipping of the engine off the shoulders while inflating the wing.

Thigh straps (3)  - you get the right fastening when you can seat easily, without the use of the hands..
If they are too loosen you get hard to seat but you have an easier run.
If too tight you get hard to slip back to the seat after taking off.


The hooking point (4) and its lengthening (B) must be adjusted following the pilot's size.

Each pilot will choose the the adjustment in order to get the carabiner-catch to better suit his needs in flight as well as on the ground

The horizontal length (C)  allows the adjusting the incidence of the axis of the engine thrust, hung with the engine off, the thrust of the prop must be horizontal or few degrees positive (max 10).

This length is connected to the pilot's weight .

The spacer bar (D) pushes away the pectoral from the pilot's chest and makes easy to seat.


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The pectoral (E) fasten the harness as in the free flight.

The adjusting of the buckle (6) allows to control the stability, the pectoral must be tighten to eliminate the clearance.

The anti-torque belt (F)  counterbalances the torque of the engine, the adjustment is made by the buckle (7) and (8).

The buckle (7) can be adjusted even while in flight.

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The standard settings are the following :

Pilot's weight / height


higher belt = distance from the base of the carabiner-catch to the center tube of the frame 


Kg / cm


60 / 170 130/67 M harness = high
L harness = low
28cm M size = 27 cm

75 / 180




L size  = 30 cm

90 / 190 200/75 high 34cm XL = 33 cm
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The size C must be 1/2  in. SHORTER on the right side.

The harness is well adjusted when :

example of the basic setting of the shoulder straps lenght 

A + 1


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The buckles of the thigh's straps as well as those of the pectoral must be fastened with the adjustment outward, otherwise the belt does not lock. (removable version)

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Detail of buckles fastening (removable version)

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the harness must be free to moove upside while standing up (seat position follows the thighs), or the take-off run is hampered by poor posture of the pilot.

If this string is not long anought ...




... may be better to fix it to the lateral frame tube 

this solution is not the same with different harness sizes or settings, or bar lenght,  so this decision is up to you after you set-up and try the machine on the ground.

Verify the string lenght, the loop must be large anought to permit a free mouvement  up and down


be carefull, on the right side the string loop must not include the remote choke  

    tipical for XL size harness

  tipical for L and S size harness 



how to fix the harness to the frame


wpeA.gif (3083 byte)

Warning.gif (151 byte) Exclaim.gif (1443 byte)The carabiner-catch must be slipped so to have the pad-belt inward.

(should it unstitch, it will hold you anyway)

M4 frame and harness setting here


the harness ABM sistem  
is an evolution made from PER IL VOLO since year  2007

Thanks to the lower and pivoting hangpoint it allows a more active piloting retaining at the same time excellent characteristics of autostability.


If correctly set up it is appreciated expecially by pilots with free flight experience and used safely also by less experienced pilots. 


the upper streps are screwed to the frame from the top or from the bottom, this is a personal choice

don’t tighten this loop , it must be allowed to move up and down

On the right side, don't include the remote choke control




          the basic setting of ABM harness is similar to free flight harnesses


leg straps – the correct tension of the straps is obtained when the pilot can go in the sitting position comfortably and without using his hands.

If too loose it runs better, but it will be difficult to sit,
even if too tight it will be difficult slip back into a sitting position after takeoff


The seat has two straps in the front that have to be left loose during take off and shortened once in flight to the pilot’s desired position


the chest strap  must be tightened is such a way as to limit the sideways pull of the carabiners on the two arms (in flight, the glider pulls the carabiners up and sideways) so as not to stress the frame. The two arms should still be allowed to move freely up and down.



the straps that attach to the frame (see image below) must be adjusted so that, with the chest strap closed, the upward movement of the two arms is limited to 85 cm from the ground (see the  image on the right )


the shoulder straps must be adjusted so that the frame is comfortably on the pilot’s back when on the ground but become loose when in flight.

While on the ground, with the pilot standing, it is not necessary that his back be touching the frame’s backsupport (as in the PFS system).

By adjusting the shoulder straps this way the pilot can moderatly move forward with his shoulders, during the takeoff phase in which the glider picks up the weight of the paramotor, without effecting the correct alignment of the propeller with the ground      (and so the line of thrust).



the hang points on the moving arms allow the adjustment of the direction of the line of thrust to the different weights of the pilots. Move forward for heavier pilots and viceversa for lighter ones.

The right hangpoint must be 1cm less distant then the left one.

a basic setting for 80 kg pilot is :

28-29 cm dx, 29-30 cm sx

11-11,5 in. right, 11,5-12 in. left

frame 2016  basic setting for 75 Kg pilot : 30-31 cm right, 31-32 cm left

The measurement is done as in the image on the left.


more about the setting for light pilots here


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the suspension belt
in the ABM  harness system also serves as a docking security in case of failure of metal components and is particularly overstretched


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www.miniplane.it/shop art.T8FB



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The harness should be checked periodically by a suitably qualified person and replaced when necessary. 

Like the glider, the harness also has a limited lifespan, on average every 500 hours of exposure to the sun will reduce the resistance of the synthetic materials by half. 

Aerobatic manoeuvres, improper use and landings in water can also greatly effect the fabrics lifespan.

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The harnesses PSF and ABM are fixed on the frame in different points :






Foot-accelerator (speed system)

while in flight you can use the foot-accelerator .

You must pay a bit more attention when mounting the device and when you wear the harness, in order to avoid the string to get jammed around some belt.

We suggest you to use the double returning in order to reduce the effort (as shown in the picture).


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When not used, the pulleys can be put in the side pockets


click to enlarge >




In the Miniplane paramotor, you  can mount an emergency parachute (emergencies).

For performance and quality please refer to the manufacturer's manual

To avoid the moving of the bond rope do fix it by strap ribbons.


As there insn't  "the best solution"

on the following table we describe advantages / disadvantages of each possible solution


kind of setting

benefits impediments


To the side vertical harness belt. in this case the rope must pass under the pilot's arm from the launching side

Fixing it to the right side it counterbalance the prop torque You can only launch it by one hand (the right one), better if you first leave the control handle.

The gas handle could hamper the proper launch


In ventral position by a special casing. It can be a short one, straight to the spring-catches (4), or loose to the points (5)

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pay attention please,  our EM 11 and em12, must be hang to the carabiners without any modification (prolongments) to the risers

Less impeding while maneuvering

With a short rope you can launch either with the left or with the right hand

The short rope must be hooked to the spring-catches in order to get out of the harness - each time you sit on the harness

may be dangerous in case of water landing

over the head

fixed to the frame yust back to the pilot head


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pay attention please,  our EM 11 and em12, must be hang to the carabiners without any modification (prolongments) to the risers

very simple assembling,

With a short rope you can launch either with the left or with the right hand

in case of a deep spiral because the big centrifugal force may be difficult to find the launch handle

lateral aircone 

 You can operate it by both hands or hand-launching by hand, using the right hand weight and dimensions bother, in flight as well as on the ground

aircone cylindrical

under the tank

any burden for the pilot

good aerodynamics

low center of gravity


kind of setting

benefits impediments